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Although this list is not exhaustive, the following are a sample of notable studies.


Clark, JF, Ellis, JK, Burns TM, et al. Analysis of Central and Peripheral Vision Reaction Times in Patients with Postconcussion Visual dysfunction. Clin J Sport Med. 2017; Sep;27(5): 457-461.

Tong, D et al. High prevalence of visual midline shift syndrome in TBI: A retrospective study. Vision Development & Rehabilitation. 2016;2(3): 176-182.

Padula WV, Argyris S. Post trauma vision syndrome and visual midline shift syndrome. J Neuro Rehab. 1996;6:165–71.

Padula WV, Capo-Aponte JE, Singman EL, et al. The consequence of spatial visual processing dysfunction caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Brain Inj. 2017;31(5):589-560.

Howell DR, O’Brien MJ, Raghuram A, Shah AS, Meehan WP. Near Point of Convergence and Gait Deficits in Adolescents After Sport-Related Concussion. Clin J Sport Med 2018; 3: 262-267.

DuPrey KM, Webner D, Lyons A, Kucuk CH, Ellis JT, Cronholm PF. Convergence Insufficiency Identifies Athletes at Risk of Prolonged Recovery from Sport-Related Concussion. Am J Sports Med 2017; 10: 2388-2393.

Pearce KL, Sufrinko A, Lau BC, Henry L, Collins MW, Kontos AP. Near Point of Convergence After a Sport-Related Concussion: Measurement Reliability and Relationship to Neurocognitive Impairment and Symptoms. Am J Sports Med 2015; 12: 3055-61.

Killgore W.D.S., Vanuk JR, Shane BR, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of blue wavelength light exposure on sleep and recovery of brain structure, function, and cognition following mild traumatic brain injury. Neurobiol Dis. 2020 Feb;134:104679.

Truong JQ, Ciuffreda KJ. Objective pupillary correlates of photosensitivity in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury populations. Mil Med. 2016; 181(10): 1382-1390.

Carrick FR, Azzolino SF, Hunfalvay M, et al. The Pupillary Light Reflex as a Biomarker of Concussion. Life (Basel). 2021 Oct 18;11(10):1104.

Ciuffreda KJ, Yadav NK, Ludlam DP. Binasal Occlusion (BNO), Visual Motion Sensitivity (VMS), and the Visually-Evoked Potential (VEP) in mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/TBI). Brain Sci. 2017 Aug 9;7(8):98.

Ciuffreda KJ, Yadav NK. Effect of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms on the visual-evoked potential (VEP in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Brain Inj. 2014;28(12):1568-80.

Mani R, Asper L, Khuu SK. Deficits in Saccades and Smooth-Pursuit Eye Movements in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Brain Inj 2018;32(11): 1315-1336.

Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N. The relationship of cervical joint position error to balance and eye movement disturbances in persistent whiplash. Man Ther 2006;11(2):99-106.

Feller CN, Goldenberg M, Asselin PT, et al. Classification of Comprehensive Neuro-Ophthalmological Measures of Postacute Concussion. JAMA 2021 Mar 1;4(3) e210599.

doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0599.

Ciuffreda KJ, Tannen B, Han MHE. Visual Snow Syndrome (VSS): An evolving neuro-optometric clinical perspective. Vision Dev & Rehab 2019;5(2):75-82.

Ghannam B, Pelak VS. Visual snow: a potential cortical hyperexcitability syndrome. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2017; 19: 8-20.

Schankin CJ, Maniyar FH, Digre KB, Goadsby PJ. Visual snow – a disorder distinct from persistent migraine aura. Brain 2014:137; 1419–1428.

Simpson-Jones ME, Hunt AW. Vision rehabilitation interventions following mild traumatic brain injury: a scoping review. Disabil Rehabil 2019; Sep;41(18): 2206-2222.

Berryman A, Rasavage K, Gerber, D. Oculomotor Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial. Am J Occup Ther. 2020;74(1): 7401185050p1‐7401185050p7.

Fox SM, Koons P, Dang SH. Vision Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2019; 1: 171-188.

Santo AL, Race ML, Teel EF. Near Point of Convergence Deficits and Treatment Following Concussion: A Systematic Review. J Sport Rehabil. 2020;Nov1;29(8): 1179-1193.

Clark JF, Graman P, Ellis JK, et al. An Exploratory Study of the Potential Effects of Vision Training on Concussion Incidence in Football. Optometry & Visual Performance 2015;(3)2: 116-125.

Antonoff DG, Goss J, Langevin TL, et al. Unexpected Findings from a Pilot Study on Vision Training as a Potential Intervention to Reduce Subconcussive Head Impacts during a Collegiate Ice Hockey Season. J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 1;38(13): 1783-90.

Sports Vision

Hammond BR, Fletcher LM, Roos F, et al. A double-blind, placebo controlled study on the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on photostress recovery, glare disability, and chromatic contrast. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Dec 2;55(12): 8583-9.

Vine SJ, Wilson MR. The Influence of Quiet Eye Training and Pressure on Attention and Visuo-Motor Control (Randomized Control Trial). Acta Psychol (Amst) 2011;136(3): 340-6.

Panchuk D, Vickers JN, Hopkins WG. Quiet Eye predicts goaltender success in deflected ice hockey shots. Eur J Sports Sci 2017 Feb 17(1): 93-99.

Romeas T, Guldner A, Faubert J. 3D-Multiple Object Tracking training task improves passing decision-making accuracy in soccer players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 2016;(22): 1-9.

Harris D, Wilson MR, Crowe EM, et al. Examining the roles of working memory and visual attention in multiple object tracking expertise. Cogn Process 2020 May;21(2): 209-222. (vision training to help with working memory in athletes)

Vaughan RS, Laborde S. Attention, working-memory control, working-memory capacity, and sport performance: The moderating role of athletic expertise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2021 Feb;21(2): 240-49.

Mitroff SR, Friesen P, Bennett D, et al. Enhancing Ice Hockey Skills Through Stroboscopic Visual Training: A Pilot Study. Published Online October 30, 2013.

Reichow AW, Garchow KE, Baird RY. Do scores on a tachistiscope test correlate with baseball batting averages? Eye Contact Lens 2011 May;37(3): 123-6.

Liu S, Ferris LM, Hilbig S, et al. Dynamic vision training transfers positively to batting practice performance among collegiate baseball batters. Psychology of Sport & Exercise 51 2020: 101759.

Clark JF, Ellis JK, Bench J, et al. High-Performance Vision Training Improves Batting Statistics for University of Cincinnati Baseball Players. PloS 2012;7(1): e29109.

Minooneiad H, Barati AH, Naderifar H, et al. Effect of four weeks of ocular-motor exercises on dynamic visual acuity and stability limit of female basketball players (Randomized Controlled Trial). Gait Posture 2019 Sep;73: 286-90.

Laby DM, Kirschen DG, Govindarajulu U, et al. The Hand-eye Coordination of Professional Baseball Players: The Relationship to Batting. Optom Vis Sci 2018;95: 557–67.